Our goal is to continue the tradition of individual, patient-centered care for our spinal deformity patients, whether they are local or international, straightforward or complex, operative or non-operative.

MEDIA

EDUCATION

Medical School

  • Harvard Medical School , 1970 , Boston , MA

Residency

General Surgery
  • Peter Bent Brigham , 1972 , Boston , MA

Residency

Orthopedic Surgery
  • Harvard Combined Orthopedic Surgery Residency Program , 1976 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

It is an honor and privilege to be part of the Spinal Program in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at Boston Children’s Hospital. We are fortunate to have a breadth and depth of experience that allows us to care for the most complex and challenging pediatric deformities. Our goal is to continue the tradition of individual, patient-centered care for our spinal deformity patients, whether they are local or international, straightforward or complex, operative or non-operative.

PROFESSIONAL HISTORY

•   Harvard College – 1966
•   Harvard Medical School – 1970
•   General Surgery, Orthopedic Residency – 1970-1976
•   Major, U.S. Army Medical Corps, Cutler Army Hospital – 1976-1978
•   Boston Children’s Hospital, 1978 – present
•   Memberships: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), American Osteopathic
    Association (AOA), International Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology (SICOT),
    America Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA)
•   Leadership positions: Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), Growing Spine Study Group (GSSG)
•   Research interests: Early-onset deformity, congenital deformity, idiopathic scoliosis bracing

CERTIFICATIONS

  • American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery, General Orthopaedics

PUBLICATIONS

Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Matched Comparison of Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods with Traditional Growing Rods in Severe Early-Onset Scoliosis of =90°: An Interim Report on Outcomes 2 Years After Treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2021 Oct 13. View abstract
  2. Surgical Correction of Scoliosis in Children with Severe Congenital Heart Disease and Palliated Single Ventricle Physiology. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Jul 15; 46(14):E791-E796. View abstract
  3. Variability in Antibiotic Treatment of Pediatric Surgical Site Infection After Spinal Fusion at A Single Institution. J Pediatr Orthop. 2021 Jul 01; 41(6):e380-e385. View abstract
  4. Growth-Friendly Spine Surgery in Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2021 04 21; 103(8):715-726. View abstract
  5. Preoperative hematocrit and platelet count are associated with blood loss during spinal fusion for children with neuromuscular scoliosis. J Perioper Pract. 2021 Apr 07; 1750458920962634. View abstract
  6. Vitamin D levels and pain outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing spine fusion. Spine Deform. 2021 Jul; 9(4):997-1004. View abstract
  7. Scoliosis with Chiari I malformation without associated syringomyelia. Spine Deform. 2021 Jul; 9(4):1105-1113. View abstract
  8. An initial effort to define an early onset scoliosis "graduate"-The Pediatric Spine Study Group experience. Spine Deform. 2021 May; 9(3):679-683. View abstract
  9. Minimum 5-Year Follow-up on Graduates of Growing Spine Surgery for Early Onset Scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Nov/Dec; 40(10):e942-e946. View abstract
  10. Why Irrigate for the Same Contamination Rate: Wound Contamination in Pediatric Spinal Surgery Using Betadine Versus Saline. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Nov/Dec; 40(10):e994-e998. View abstract
  11. Risk Factors for Reoperation Following Final Fusion After the Treatment of Early-Onset Scoliosis with Traditional Growing Rods. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Oct 07; 102(19):1672-1678. View abstract
  12. Spinal Deformity in Sotos Syndrome: First Results of Growth-friendly Spine Surgery. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Oct; 40(9):453-461. View abstract
  13. Occipital Plate Fixation in the Pediatric Population. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Oct; 40(9):462-467. View abstract
  14. A report of two conservative approaches to early onset scoliosis: serial casting and bracing. Spine Deform. 2021 Mar; 9(2):595-602. View abstract
  15. Acute Implant-related Complications in Pediatric Cervical Spine Fusion. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Aug; 40(7):e662-e666. View abstract
  16. Risk Factors for Reoperation Following Final Fusion After the Treatment of Early-Onset Scoliosis with Traditional Growing Rods. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Jul 21. View abstract
  17. Interleukin-10 and Zonulin Are Associated With Postoperative Delayed Gastric Emptying in Critically Ill Surgical Pediatric Patients: A Prospective Pilot Study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2020 11; 44(8):1407-1416. View abstract
  18. Efficacy of bracing in skeletally immature patients with moderate-severe idiopathic scoliosis curves between 40° and 60°. Spine Deform. 2020 10; 8(5):911-920. View abstract
  19. MRI utilization and rates of abnormal pretreatment MRI findings in early-onset scoliosis: review of a global cohort. Spine Deform. 2020 10; 8(5):1099-1107. View abstract
  20. Diagnosing and treating native spinal and pelvic osteomyelitis in adolescents. Spine Deform. 2020 10; 8(5):1001-1008. View abstract
  21. Does bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affect operative results? Spine Deform. 2020 06; 8(3):427-432. View abstract
  22. Intraoperative Use of O-arm in Pediatric Cervical Spine Surgery. J Pediatr Orthop. 2020 Apr; 40(4):e266-e271. View abstract
  23. Five or more proximal anchors and including upper end vertebra protects against reoperation in distraction-based growing rods. Spine Deform. 2020 08; 8(4):781-786. View abstract
  24. Prospectively collected surgeon indications for discontinuation of a lengthening program for early-onset scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2020 02; 8(1):129-133. View abstract
  25. Chiari I malformations with syringomyelia: long-term results of neurosurgical decompression. Spine Deform. 2020 04; 8(2):233-243. View abstract
  26. Implementing a Multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway Can Reduce the Deep Surgical Site Infection Rate After Posterior Spinal Fusion in High-Risk Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 Jan; 7(1):33-39. View abstract
  27. Surgical Treatment of Developmental Spondylolisthesis: Contemporary Series With a Two-Surgeon Team. Spine Deform. 2019 Mar; 7(2):275-285. View abstract
  28. Pelvic Obliquity Correction in Distraction-Based Growth Friendly Implants. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):985-991. View abstract
  29. The Effect of Expansion Thoracostomy on Spine Growth in Patients with Spinal Deformity and Fused Ribs Treated with Rib-Based Growing Constructs. Spine Deform. 2019 Sep; 7(5):836-841. View abstract
  30. Hemoglobin Levels Pre- and Posttreatment as a Surrogate for Disease Severity in Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2019 Jul; 7(4):641-646. View abstract
  31. Spine Deformity With Fused Ribs Treated With Proximal Rib- Versus Spine-Based Growing Constructs. Spine Deform. 2019 Jan; 7(1):152-157. View abstract
  32. The Association Between the Classification of Early-onset Scoliosis and Smith Complications After Initiation of Growth-friendly Spine Surgery: A Preliminary Study. J Pediatr Orthop. 2019 Nov/Dec; 39(10):e737-e741. View abstract
  33. Pelvic Obliquity Correction in Distraction-Based Growth Friendly Implants. Spine Deform. 2019 11; 7(6):985-991. View abstract
  34. Traditional Growing Rod Graduates of Different Etiologic Categories have Similar Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):1015-1016. View abstract
  35. Analysis of EOS Cases that are Resistant to Correction and Length Gain. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):1017. View abstract
  36. Halo-Gravity Traction for the Treatment of Cervical Spine Disorders. Spine Deform. 2019 Nov; 7(6):1026-1027. View abstract
  37. The Effect of Expansion Thoracostomy on Spine Growth in Patients with Spinal Deformity and Fused Ribs Treated with Rib-Based Growing Constructs. Spine Deform. 2019 09; 7(5):836-841. View abstract
  38. Perioperative acute neurological deficits in instrumented pediatric cervical spine fusions. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 Aug 16; 1-11. View abstract
  39. Adverse Perioperative Events in Children with Complex Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Operative Scoliosis Repair in the Contemporary Era. Pediatr Cardiol. 2019 Oct; 40(7):1468-1475. View abstract
  40. Hemoglobin Levels Pre- and Posttreatment as a Surrogate for Disease Severity in Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2019 07; 7(4):641-646. View abstract
  41. Parent-to-Parent Advice on Considering Spinal Fusion in Children with Neuromuscular Scoliosis. J Pediatr. 2019 10; 213:149-154. View abstract
  42. Surgical and Health-related Quality-of-Life Outcomes of Growing Rod "Graduates" With Severe versus Moderate Early-onset Scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 May 15; 44(10):698-706. View abstract
  43. What Are the Indications for Spinal Fusion Surgery in Scheuermann Kyphosis? J Pediatr Orthop. 2019 May/Jun; 39(5):217-221. View abstract
  44. Surgical Treatment of Developmental Spondylolisthesis: Contemporary Series With a Two-Surgeon Team. Spine Deform. 2019 03; 7(2):275-285. View abstract
  45. Spine Deformity With Fused Ribs Treated With Proximal Rib- Versus Spine-Based Growing Constructs. Spine Deform. 2019 01; 7(1):152-157. View abstract
  46. Implementing a Multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway Can Reduce the Deep Surgical Site Infection Rate After Posterior Spinal Fusion in High-Risk Patients. Spine Deform. 2019 01; 7(1):33-39. View abstract
  47. Anterior Spinal Fusion and Posterior Spinal Fusion Both Effectively Treat Lenke Type 5 Curves in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Multicenter Study. Spine Deform. 2018 May; 6(3):231-240. View abstract
  48. Construct Levels to Anchored Levels Ratio and Rod Diameter Are Associated With Implant-Related Complications in Traditional Growing Rods. Spine Deform. 2018 May; 6(3):320-326. View abstract
  49. Comparison of Percentile Weight Gain of Growth-Friendly Constructs in Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2018 Jan; 6(1):43-47. View abstract
  50. Tranexamic Acid Is Efficacious at Decreasing the Rate of Blood Loss in Adolescent Scoliosis Surgery: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018 Dec 05; 100(23):2024-2032. View abstract
  51. Outcomes of growing rod surgery for severe compared with moderate early-onset scoliosis: a matched comparative study. Bone Joint J. 2018 06 01; 100-B(6):772-779. View abstract
  52. Anterior Spinal Fusion and Posterior Spinal Fusion Both Effectively Treat Lenke Type 5 Curves in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Multicenter Study. Spine Deform. 2018 May - Jun; 6(3):231-240. View abstract
  53. Construct Levels to Anchored Levels Ratio and Rod Diameter Are Associated With Implant-Related Complications in Traditional Growing Rods. Spine Deform. 2018 May - Jun; 6(3):320-326. View abstract
  54. The Final 24-Item Early Onset Scoliosis Questionnaires (EOSQ-24): Validity, Reliability and Responsiveness. J Pediatr Orthop. 2018 Mar; 38(3):144-151. View abstract
  55. Sagittal plane parameters in growing rod patients following final fusion. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2018 Mar; 27(2):168-175. View abstract
  56. Comparison of Percentile Weight Gain of Growth-Friendly Constructs in Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2018 01; 6(1):43-47. View abstract
  57. Staged Growing Rods With Preimplantation of Spinal Anchors for Complex Early Onset Scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Dec; 37(8):e606-e611. View abstract
  58. Growing Rods Are an Effective Fusionless Method of Controlling Early-Onset Scoliosis Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1): A Multicenter Retrospective Case Series. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Dec; 37(8):e612-e618. View abstract
  59. Paper #43: A Multi-Center Assessment of Neurological Changes in Distraction-Based Surgery for Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2017 Nov; 5(6):463. View abstract
  60. Paper #20: Vertebral Column Resection for Early-Onset Scoliosis: Indications, Utilization and Outcomes. Spine Deform. 2017 Nov; 5(6):449-450. View abstract
  61. Paper #34: Treatment of Severe Early Onset Scoliosis using Distraction Based Spinal Instrumentation : A matched comparative study. Spine Deform. 2017 Nov; 5(6):456-457. View abstract
  62. Paper #30: Congenital Spine Deformity with Fused Ribs Treated with Proximal Rib- vs. Spine-Based Growing Constructs. Spine Deform. 2017 Nov; 5(6):454-455. View abstract
  63. Paper #19: Utilization and Reliability of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Vertebral Column Resections for Severe Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2017 Nov; 5(6):448-449. View abstract
  64. Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring for Pediatric Cervical Spine Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Jul 01; 42(13):974-978. View abstract
  65. Retrieval and clinical analysis of distraction-based dual growing rod constructs for early-onset scoliosis. Spine J. 2017 10; 17(10):1506-1518. View abstract
  66. What are the Indications for Spinal Fusion Surgery in Scheuermann Kyphosis? J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Jan 30. View abstract
  67. Final Fusion After Growing-Rod Treatment for Early Onset Scoliosis: Is It Really Final? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016 Nov 16; 98(22):1913-1917. View abstract
  68. Complications and Radiographic Outcomes of Posterior Spinal Fusion and Observation in Patients Who Have Undergone Distraction-Based Treatment for Early Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2016 11; 4(6):407-412. View abstract
  69. Combined preoperative traction with instrumented posterior occipitocervical fusion for severe ventral brainstem compression secondary to displaced os odontoideum: technical report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Dec; 25(6):724-729. View abstract
  70. Age at Initiation and Deformity Magnitude Influence Complication Rates of Surgical Treatment With Traditional Growing Rods in Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2016 09; 4(5):344-350. View abstract
  71. Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of congenital spinal anomalies: Review for prenatal counseling. World J Orthop. 2016 Jul 18; 7(7):406-17. View abstract
  72. Avoidance of "Final" Surgical Fusion After Growing-Rod Treatment for Early-Onset Scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016 Jul 06; 98(13):1073-8. View abstract
  73. Offset layered closure reduces deep wound infection in early-onset scoliosis surgery. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2016 Jul; 25(4):361-8. View abstract
  74. Cervical Spine Instrumentation in Children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016 Jun; 24(6):370-8. View abstract
  75. VEPTR Implantation After Age 3 is Associated With Similar Radiographic Outcomes With Fewer Complications. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016 Apr-May; 36(3):219-25. View abstract
  76. What would be the annual cost savings if fewer screws were used in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treatment in the US? J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Jan; 24(1):116-23. View abstract
  77. Neonatal C1 TO C2 osteomyelitis leading to instability and neurological decline: novel treatment with occiput-C1-C2 fusion and occiput to thorax growing rods. A case report. J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Jun; 35(4):379-84. View abstract
  78. Growing Rods Versus Shilla Growth Guidance: Better Cobb Angle Correction and T1-S1 Length Increase But More Surgeries. Spine Deform. 2015 May; 3(3):246-252. View abstract
  79. Spinal deformity progression after posterior segmental instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. J Child Orthop. 2015 Feb; 9(1):29-37. View abstract
  80. Do Thoracolumbar/lumbar Curves Respond Differently to Growing Rod Surgery Compared With Thoracic Curves? Spine Deform. 2014 Nov; 2(6):475-480. View abstract
  81. Traditional Growing Rods Versus Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods for the Surgical Treatment of Early-Onset Scoliosis: A Case-Matched 2-Year Study. Spine Deform. 2014 Nov; 2(6):493-497. View abstract
  82. The effect of serial growing rod lengthening on the sagittal profile and pelvic parameters in early-onset scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Oct 15; 39(22):E1311-7. View abstract
  83. Is there a relationship between thoracic dimensions and pulmonary function in early-onset scoliosis? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Sep 01; 39(19):1590-5. View abstract
  84. Risk Factors for Coronal Decompensation After Posterior Spinal Instrumentation and Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2014 Sep; 2(5):380-385. View abstract
  85. Best Practices in Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Spine Deformity Surgery: Development of an Intraoperative Checklist to Optimize Response. Spine Deform. 2014 Sep; 2(5):333-339. View abstract
  86. Efficacy of nonfusion treatment for subacute and chronic atlanto-axial rotatory fixation in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Jul-Aug; 34(5):490-5. View abstract
  87. Distraction-Based Treatment Maintains Predicted Thoracic Dimensions in Early-Onset Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2014 May; 2(3):203-207. View abstract
  88. Nutritional improvement following growing rod surgery in children with early onset scoliosis. J Child Orthop. 2014 May; 8(3):251-6. View abstract
  89. Does higher anchor density result in increased curve correction and improved clinical outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Apr 01; 39(7):571-8. View abstract
  90. Prediction of thoracic dimensions and spine length on the basis of individual pelvic dimensions: validation of the use of pelvic inlet width obtained by radiographs compared with computed tomography. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Jan 01; 39(1):74-80. View abstract
  91. VEPTR to treat nonsyndromic congenital scoliosis: a multicenter, mid-term follow-up study. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Oct-Nov; 33(7):679-84. View abstract
  92. Are More Screws Better? A Systematic Review of Anchor Density and Curve Correction in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine Deform. 2013 Jul; 1(4):237-247. View abstract
  93. Selective thoracic fusion in Lenke 1C curves: prevalence and criteria. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Jul 15; 38(16):1380-5. View abstract
  94. Building consensus: development of a Best Practice Guideline (BPG) for surgical site infection (SSI) prevention in high-risk pediatric spine surgery. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Jul-Aug; 33(5):471-8. View abstract
  95. Commentary: Does pedicle screw density matter in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Spine J. 2013 Apr; 13(4):382-3. View abstract
  96. Complications after 147 consecutive vertebral column resections for severe pediatric spinal deformity: a multicenter analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Jan 15; 38(2):119-32. View abstract
  97. Antifibrinolytic agents reduce blood loss during pediatric vertebral column resection procedures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Nov 01; 37(23):E1459-63. View abstract
  98. How does thoracic kyphosis affect patient outcomes in growing rod surgery? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Jul 01; 37(15):1303-9. View abstract
  99. Vertebral column resection in children with neuromuscular spine deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 May 15; 37(11):E655-61. View abstract
  100. Arteriovenous fistula formation after a closed proximal tibial fracture in a child. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011 Oct; 93(10):1424-6. View abstract
  101. Fixation points within the main thoracic curve: does more instrumentation produce greater curve correction and improved results? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Oct 01; 36(21):E1402-6. View abstract
  102. Growing rod fractures: risk factors and opportunities for prevention. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Sep 15; 36(20):1639-44. View abstract
  103. Growing rods for scoliosis in spinal muscular atrophy: structural effects, complications, and hospital stays. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Jul 15; 36(16):1305-11. View abstract
  104. Is the vertebral expandable prosthetic titanium rib a surgical alternative in patients with spina bifida? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011 May; 469(5):1291-6. View abstract
  105. Halo-gravity traction versus surgical release before implantation of expandable spinal devices: a comparison of results and complications in early-onset spinal deformity. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011 Apr; 24(2):99-104. View abstract
  106. Male-female differences in Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Jan 01; 36(1):E53-9. View abstract
  107. Safety and efficacy of growing rod technique for pediatric congenital spinal deformities. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011 Jan-Feb; 31(1):1-5. View abstract
  108. Complications of growth-sparing surgery in early onset scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Dec 01; 35(25):2193-204. View abstract
  109. Preoperative bracing affects postoperative outcome of posterior spine fusion with instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Sep 15; 35(20):1876-9. View abstract
  110. Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib as treatment of thoracic insufficiency syndrome in spondylocostal dysplasia. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Sep; 30(6):521-6. View abstract
  111. Growing rods for spinal deformity: characterizing consensus and variation in current use. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Apr-May; 30(3):264-70. View abstract
  112. Single stage reduction and stabilization of basilar invagination after failed prior fusion surgery in children with Down's syndrome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Feb 15; 35(4):E128-33. View abstract
  113. Increased hemoglobin levels in patients with early onset scoliosis: prevalence and effect of a treatment with Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR). Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Nov 01; 34(23):2534-6. View abstract
  114. Osteoid osteomas: intraoperative bone scan-assisted resection. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Sep; 4(3):237-44. View abstract
  115. Neurologic risk in growing rod spine surgery in early onset scoliosis: is neuromonitoring necessary for all cases? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Aug 15; 34(18):1952-5. View abstract
  116. Fusionless instrumentation systems for congenital scoliosis: expandable spinal rods and vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib in the management of congenital spine deformities in the growing child. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Aug 01; 34(17):1800-7. View abstract
  117. Pelvic fixation of growing rods: comparison of constructs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jul 15; 34(16):1706-10. View abstract
  118. Growing rods for infantile scoliosis in Marfan syndrome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jul 15; 34(16):1711-5. View abstract
  119. Efficacy of intraoperative neurologic monitoring in surgery involving a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib for early-onset spinal deformity. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Jul; 91(7):1657-63. View abstract
  120. The usefulness of VEPTR in the older child with complex spine and chest deformity. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Mar; 468(3):700-4. View abstract
  121. Three rod technique facilitates hemivertebra wedge excision in young children through a posterior only approach. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Mar 15; 34(6):E225-9. View abstract
  122. Failure of attempted implant retention in spinal deformity delayed surgical site infections. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jan 01; 34(1):60-4. View abstract
  123. Mutations in the MESP2 gene cause spondylothoracic dysostosis/Jarcho-Levin syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Jun; 82(6):1334-41. View abstract
  124. Health-related quality of life in children with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Mar; 28(2):239-43. View abstract
  125. The Spinal Appearance Questionnaire: results of reliability, validity, and responsiveness testing in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 Nov 15; 32(24):2719-22. View abstract
  126. Non-neurologic complications following surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Nov; 89(11):2427-32. View abstract
  127. Anterior exposures of the pediatric spine and posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2007 Oct; 18(4):681-95. View abstract
  128. The use of allograft as a bone graft substitute in patients with congenital spine deformities. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Sep; 27(6):686-9. View abstract
  129. Evidence basis for management of spine and chest wall deformities in children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 Sep 01; 32(19 Suppl):S81-90. View abstract
  130. Lateral entry compared with medial and lateral entry pin fixation for completely displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children. A randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Apr; 89(4):706-12. View abstract
  131. Congenital scoliosis: a review and update. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007 Jan-Feb; 27(1):106-16. View abstract
  132. Operative treatment of scoliosis in patients with a Fontan circulation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jan 15; 31(2):202-5. View abstract
  133. Prediction of thoracic dimensions and spine length based on individual pelvic dimensions in children and adolescents: an age-independent, individualized standard for evaluation of outcome in early onset spinal deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Dec 15; 30(24):2824-9. View abstract
  134. The treatment of spine and chest wall deformities with fused ribs by expansion thoracostomy and insertion of vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib: growth of thoracic spine and improvement of lung volumes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Sep 01; 30(17 Suppl):S58-68. View abstract
  135. Cervical kyphosis associated with anteroposterior dissociation and quadriparesis in Larsen's syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Jul-Aug; 25(4):429-33. View abstract
  136. Bone density accumulation is not affected by brace treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescent girls. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Jul-Aug; 25(4):423-8. View abstract
  137. Cervical kyphosis associated with anteroposterior dissociation and quadriparesis in Larsen’s syndrome. J Pediatr Ortho. 2005; 25(4):429-33. View abstract
  138. Serum levels of nickel and chromium after instrumented posterior spinal arthrodesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Apr 15; 30(8):923-6. View abstract
  139. Hemivertebra excision in children via simultaneous anterior and posterior exposures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 Jan-Feb; 25(1):60-3. View abstract
  140. Hemivertebra excision in children via simultaneous anterior and posterior exposures. J. Ped. Ortho. 2005; 25(1). View abstract
  141. The safety and efficacy of spinal instrumentation in children with congenital spine deformities. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Sep 15; 29(18):2081-6; discussion 2087. View abstract
  142. Congenital scoliosis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2004 Jul-Aug; 12(4):266-75. View abstract
  143. The correlation of preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions with operative findings in congenital scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Nov 15; 28(22):2531-4; discussion 1. View abstract
  144. Role of oblique radiographs in blunt pediatric cervical spine injury. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2003 Apr; 19(2):68-72. View abstract
  145. Spinal arthrodesis for scoliosis in Down syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003 Mar-Apr; 23(2):159-61. View abstract
  146. Use of an abduction brace for developmental dysplasia of the hip after failure of Pavlik harness use. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003 Mar-Apr; 23(2):175-7. View abstract
  147. Surgical treatment of congenital kyphosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Oct 15; 26(20):2251-7. View abstract
  148. Early failure of Pavlik harness treatment for developmental hip dysplasia: clinical and ultrasound predictors. J Pediatr Orthop. 2001 May-Jun; 21(3):348-53. View abstract
  149. Role of flexion-extension radiographs in blunt pediatric cervical spine injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Mar; 8(3):237-45. View abstract
  150. Pediatric and Adolescent Spinal Deformity. Oxford Textbook of Surgery. W.W. Wood, editor. 2001. View abstract
  151. Role of flexion-extension radiographs in blunt pediatric cervical spine injury. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2001; 8:237-245. View abstract
  152. Scoliosis and Kyphosis Stabilization. In Operative Neurosurgery. Kaye, AH, Black, PM editors. 2000; 1993-2013. View abstract
  153. Brace Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis: What makes sense in the new millennium. In SPINE: State of the Art Reviews. Strategies in the Pediatric Spine. 2000; 14(1):21-45. View abstract
  154. Brace Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis: What makes sense in the new millennium. In SPINE: State of the Art Reviews. Strategies in the Pediatric Spine. Drummond, DS ed. 2000; 14(1):21-45. View abstract
  155. Spinal fusion in patients with congenital heart disease. Predictors of outcome. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Jul; (364):99-107. View abstract
  156. Occipitocervical fusions in children. Retrospective analysis and technical considerations. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Jul; (364):125-33. View abstract
  157. Adverse urologic consequences of spinal cord resection at the time of kyphectomy: value of preoperative urodynamic evaluation. J Pediatr Orthop. 1998 Nov-Dec; 18(6):820-3. View abstract
  158. Increasing lordosis of the occipitocervical junction after arthrodesis in young children: the occipitocervical crankshaft phenomenon. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997 Nov-Dec; 17(6):762-5. View abstract
  159. Spinal deformity in myelodysplasia. Correction with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997 Oct 15; 22(20):2435-43. View abstract
  160. Long term functional outcome of Boston brace treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: function, body pain, bone density and curve status 15 to 21 years after the completion of treatment. 1997. View abstract
  161. Chronic physeal fractures in myelodysplasia: magnetic resonance analysis, histologic description, treatment, and outcome. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997 Sep-Oct; 17(5):615-21. View abstract
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