Undergraduate Degree

  • Johns Hopkins University , 2007 , Baltimore , MD

Medical School

  • Johns Hopkins University , 2012 , Baltimore , MD


  • Brigham and Women's Hospital , 2013 , Boston , MA


  • Brigham and Women's Hospital/Boston Children's Hospital , 2019 , Boston , MA


Neurointerventional Radiology
  • Brigham and Women's Hospital/Boston Children's Hospital , 2016 , Boston , MA


Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology
  • Barrow Neurological Institute , 2017 , Phoenix , AZ


Cerebrovascular Surgery
  • University of Illinois at Chicago , 2020 , Chicago , IL


Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • Boston Children's Hospital , 2021 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

A child in a hospital can feel extraordinarily vulnerable. I hope to empower children and their parents during our partnership. To achieve this, I dedicate each day to understand their perspective and to engage them in our clinical decisions and research mission.


Alfred specializes in the endovascular and microsurgical care of patients with diseases of the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord. To provide a comprehensive approach to these problems, he has focused his training with an emphasis on a broad range of tools and techniques as well as novel applications of combined surgeries to treat these diseases. Endovascular techniques use catheters from within the blood vessels to treat problems of the blood vessels but also to deliver medications in a very precisely targeted fashion. Microsurgical techniques allow meticulous separation of diseased blood vessels from the brain and allow reconstruction of diseased vessels as well as creation of new blood supply to the brain.

Having developed this expertise, he continues to engage in research to better understand normal and abnormal blood vessels. His background in engineering leads to his emphasis on quantitative analysis of blood flow and the application of new technologies such as computational analysis and robotics.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Impact of cerebral aneurysm size on distal intracranial hemodynamics and changes following flow diversion. Interv Neuroradiol. 2021 Aug 23; 15910199211032467. View abstract
  2. External carotid artery to internal carotid artery transposition to augment flow for a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass associated with severe external carotid artery stenosis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2021 12; 163(12):3495-3499. View abstract
  3. Bypass for flow-augmentation in atherosclerotic carotid occlusion: a review of the literature and career experience. J Neurosurg Sci. 2021 Jun; 65(3):305-321. View abstract
  4. Intervention for symptomatic vertebrobasilar disease. J Neurosurg Sci. 2021 Jun; 65(3):327-347. View abstract
  5. Perfusion-MRI is a Poor Indicator of Hemodynamic Compromise in Vertebrobasilar Disease in the VERiTAS Study. J Neuroimaging. 2021 01; 31(1):151-154. View abstract
  6. Natural History of Hemodynamics in Vertebrobasilar Disease: Temporal Changes in the VERiTAS Study Cohort. Stroke. 2020 11; 51(11):3295-3301. View abstract
  7. Hemodynamics in aneurysm blebs with different wall characteristics. J Neurointerv Surg. 2021 Jul; 13(7):642-646. View abstract
  8. Morbidity and mortality associated with sequential flow reduction embolization technique of cerebral arteriovenous malformations using n-butyl cyanoacrylate. J Neurointerv Surg. 2021 Mar; 13(3):237-241. View abstract
  9. Blebs in intracranial aneurysms: prevalence and general characteristics. J Neurointerv Surg. 2021 Mar; 13(3):226-230. View abstract
  10. Optimized Hemodynamic Assessment to Predict Stroke Risk in Vertebrobasilar Disease: Analysis From the VERiTAS Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 06 16; 9(12):e016406. View abstract
  11. Letter to the Editor regarding STA-MCA bypass via retrograde arterial anastomosis in a patient with common carotid artery occlusion: a case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2020 06; 162(6):1341-1342. View abstract
  12. Treatment of complex intracranial pathologies with transcirculation endovascular approaches. Neurocirugia (Astur : Engl Ed). 2020 Jul - Aug; 31(4):173-183. View abstract
  13. Postembolization Change in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Enhancement of Meningiomas Is a Better Predictor of Intraoperative Blood Loss Than Angiography. World Neurosurg. 2020 Mar; 135:e679-e685. View abstract
  14. Microsurgical Ligation of Residual Fistulous Arteriovenous Shunt From a Radicular Artery to a Thoracic Arteriovenous Malformation: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Nov 01; 17(5):E206-E207. View abstract
  15. A computer vision approach to identifying the manufacturer and model of anterior cervical spinal hardware. J Neurosurg Spine. 2019 Sep 06; 1-7. View abstract
  16. Genome-wide investigation of intragenic DNA methylation identifies ZMIZ1 gene as a prognostic marker in glioblastoma and multiple cancer types. Int J Cancer. 2019 12 15; 145(12):3425-3435. View abstract
  17. Machine Learning Models can Detect Aneurysm Rupture and Identify Clinical Features Associated with Rupture. World Neurosurg. 2019 Nov; 131:e46-e51. View abstract
  18. Frameless Stereotactic Navigation during Insular Glioma Resection using Fusion of Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. World Neurosurg. 2019 Jun; 126:322-330. View abstract
  19. Noninfectious Fever in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Association with Cerebral Vasospasm and Clinical Outcome. World Neurosurg. 2019 Feb; 122:e1014-e1019. View abstract
  20. A coil in the hair-a case report of percutaneous coil migration. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2018 12; 160(12):2397-2399. View abstract
  21. Comparison of flow diversion with clipping and coiling for the treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms in 115 patients. J Neurosurg. 2018 Jun 01; 1-8. View abstract
  22. Preoperative Embolization of Skull Base Meningiomas: Outcomes in the Onyx Era. World Neurosurg. 2018 Aug; 116:e371-e379. View abstract
  23. Use of the Apollo detachable-tip microcatheter for endovascular embolization of arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas. J Neurosurg. 2018 03 23; 130(3):963-971. View abstract
  24. Challenges and techniques for presurgical brain mapping with functional MRI. Neuroimage Clin. 2018; 17:794-803. View abstract
  25. Endovascular Renal Artery Stent Retriever Embolectomy in a Young Patient With Cardiac Myxoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2018 Jan; 52(1):70-74. View abstract
  26. Motor cortex arteriovenous malformation. Neurosurg Focus. 2017 Jul; 43(VideoSuppl1):V2. View abstract
  27. Vision outcomes in patients with paraclinoid aneurysms treated with clipping, coiling, or flow diversion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosurg Focus. 2017 Jun; 42(6):E15. View abstract
  28. Surgical Treatment of a Double Origin Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm and Insights From Embryology: Case Report and Literature Review. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2017 06 01; 13(3):E8-E12. View abstract
  29. Sedation vs Intubation for Patients With Acute Stroke Undergoing Thrombectomy. JAMA. 2017 03 21; 317(11):1176-1177. View abstract
  30. Segmental upper mid-basilar artery sacrifice in a child using a Micro Vascular Plug device for treatment of a basilar arteriovenous fistula compressing the brainstem. J Neurointerv Surg. 2017 10; 9(10):e37. View abstract
  31. Hybrid Surgery Management of Giant Hypervascular Tumors: Intraoperative Endovascular Embolization with Microsurgical Resection. World Neurosurg. 2017 Jun; 102:157-166. View abstract
  32. Basilar stroke from a persistent hypoglossal artery. J Neurointerv Surg. 2017 Aug; 9(8):e30. View abstract
  33. Teaching NeuroImages: Dynamic vertebral artery insufficiency. Neurology. 2016 11 15; 87(20):e245-e246. View abstract
  34. Risk factors for hyponatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Oct; 32:115-8. View abstract
  35. Delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage 7 years after cerebellar infarction from traumatic vertebral artery dissection. J Neurointerv Surg. 2017 Apr; 9(4):e9. View abstract
  36. Hemodynamic Impact of a Spontaneous Cervical Dissection on an Ipsilateral Saccular Aneurysm. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg. 2016 Jun; 18(2):110-114. View abstract
  37. Stent deployment protocol for optimized real-time visualization during endovascular neurosurgery. J Neurosurg. 2017 May; 126(5):1614-1621. View abstract
  38. Considerations in Applying a New Stent Retriever in Pediatric Endovascular Cerebral Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2016; 51(5):263-8. View abstract
  39. Refinement of the Hybrid Neuroendovascular Operating Suite: Current and Future Applications. World Neurosurg. 2016 Jul; 91:6-11. View abstract
  40. Letter to the Editor: Failing our colleagues, are we supporting our cerebrovascular partners? J Neurosurg. 2016 Apr; 124(4):1134-5. View abstract
  41. Letter by See et al Regarding Article, "Optimizating Clot Retrieval in Acute Stroke: The Push and Fluff Technique for Closed-Cell Stentrievers". Stroke. 2016 Feb; 47(2):e31. View abstract
  42. The role of regulatory T cells and microglia in glioblastoma-associated immunosuppression. J Neurooncol. 2015 Jul; 123(3):405-12. View abstract
  43. Down syndrome and moyamoya: clinical presentation and surgical management. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Jul; 16(1):58-63. View abstract
  44. Preservation of the greater occipital nerve during suboccipital craniectomy results in a paradoxical increase in postoperative headaches. Neurosurgery. 2015 Apr; 76(4):435-40; discussion 440. View abstract
  45. Focal radiation therapy combined with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade yields long-term survival and a protective antigen-specific memory response in a murine glioma model. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101764. View abstract
  46. Corticosteroid injection therapy for trigger finger or thumb: a retrospective review of 577 digits. Hand (N Y). 2013 Dec; 8(4):439-44. View abstract
  47. Anti-PD-1 blockade and stereotactic radiation produce long-term survival in mice with intracranial gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013 Jun 01; 86(2):343-9. View abstract
  48. Glycerol rhizotomy and radiofrequency thermocoagulation for trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. J Neurosurg. 2013 Feb; 118(2):329-36. View abstract
  49. The role of STAT3 activation in modulating the immune microenvironment of GBM. J Neurooncol. 2012 Dec; 110(3):359-68. View abstract
  50. Real-time imaging with the o-arm for skull base applications: a cadaveric feasibility study. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2012 Oct; 73(5):293-301. View abstract
  51. Effectiveness of repeat glycerol rhizotomy in treating recurrent trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2012 May; 70(5):1125-33; discussion 1133-4. View abstract
  52. Stereotactic radiosurgery of cranial arteriovenous malformations and dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Jan; 23(1):133-46. View abstract
  53. Predictors of surgery-free outcome in adult endoscopic third ventriculostomy. World Neurosurg. 2012 Sep-Oct; 78(3-4):312-7. View abstract
  54. Nelfinavir induces radiation sensitization in pituitary adenoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Oct 01; 12(7):657-63. View abstract
  55. Heat shock protein-peptide complex in the treatment of glioblastoma. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011 Jun; 10(6):721-31. View abstract
  56. Acute toxicity of second generation HIV protease-inhibitors in combination with radiotherapy: a retrospective case series. Radiat Oncol. 2011 Mar 17; 6:25. View abstract
  57. Immunologic consequences of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 activation in human squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2010 Aug 15; 70(16):6467-76. View abstract
  58. JAM-A is both essential and inhibitory to development of hepatic polarity in WIF-B cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Feb; 294(2):G576-88. View abstract