Undergraduate Degree

  • Princeton University , 1989 , Princeton , NJ

Graduate Degree

  • The Rockefeller University , New York , NY

Medical School

  • Cornell University Medical College , 1998 , New York , NY


  • NYU Medical Center , 1999 , New York , NY


Diagnostic Radiology Neurology
  • NYU Medical Center , 2003 , New York , NY


Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology
  • NYU Medical Center , 2005 , New York , NY


Neurointerventional Radiology
  • NYU Medical Center , 2006 , New York , NY

I decided that I wanted to be a doctor when I was very young, early in elementary school.

Also at an early age, I became very interested in the brain and how it works, how it is responsible for all those traits that make us human, and how it makes each of us into a unique individual.

I became so interested in those questions that as an undergraduate at Princeton University, I studied science and philosophy, with an emphasis on the philosophy of the mind and neuroscience. At one point, I thought I would be a pure researcher, and almost decided against medical school, but became convinced that some of the best research opportunities are found in medicine.

I pursued an MD/PhD at Cornell and Rockefeller University, allowing me both to treat patients and pursue neuroscience. At Cornell, I stumbled upon a new field, neurointerventional radiology, and was lucky enough to be accepted to a unique residency and fellowship program at New York University that provided cross-training in the various specialties that contribute to the field.

As a physician and scientist, I continue to be motivated by these two parallel drives. On the one hand, there is nothing like the gratification that comes with helping a child through a potentially devastating situation and seeing him or her thrive. When an infant patient, who faced a critical condition and underwent successful treatment, walks into my office years later as a healthy school-age child, there’s a jolt of joy and pride that makes everything else pale in comparison. Additionally, the conditions we treat are so rare and tools we use so new, that we are often working in uncharted territory and creating novel treatment strategies. Working through that as a care team with my colleagues and with the parents is absolutely exhilarating.

At the same time, my early passion for research is still very much there. I am committed to research into brain function and am working on developing new tools to enable us to visualize brain activity as it happens, at high resolution. My dream is to someday find an imaging tool that can help answer some of the most subtle and complex questions about the language of the brain: how it encodes information, how it generates and recalls feelings, and how it makes us who we are.


I see patients in the relatively new subspecialty of pediatric neurointerventional radiology,  an area in which we at Boston Children's Hospital have built one of the world’s largest and most comprehensive practices. My focus has been on children with neurovascular diseases and some cancers affecting the head and neck, using unique, guided approaches for treatment. I am passionate about making these novel treatment approaches, pionered for use in adults, available to children.

I am dual-trained as both a physician and scientist, having obtained my medical degree from Cornell University Medical College and my doctorate from Rockefeller University, in the Laboratory of Biophysics and Neurophysiology. At New York University Medical Center, I completed residencies in neurology and diagnostic radiology and fellowships in diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology.

In my role as a leader of the hospital's Cerebrovascular Surgical and Interventions Center, I see children with conditions affecting blood vessels in and around the brain and the spine. I have worked closely with colleagues from Neurosurgery and Neurology to build an internationally recognized multidisciplinary group that tightly integrates all aspects of clinical care and outcomes research.

In children with intracranial and extracranial vascular anomalies, we have pioneered the use of devices developed for adults, often in creative ways different from their original designed purpose. We create precision 3D models of patients’ brains and blood vessels using data from their brain scans to help us plan procedures. We have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve high-quality image-guided treatment at low radiation doses. And new techniques are allowing us to safely access arteries even in the youngest patients.

In addition, I treat patients with head and neck solid tumors, primarily retinoblastoma, at Boston Children’s Hospital and the Dana Farber Institute. Colleagues and I are exploring how we can further adapt techniques currently used in adults to help children with solid tumors, both for primary and secondary treatment, and for palliative treatment.


  • American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Neurology
  • American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology
  • American Board of Radiology, Neuroradiology


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Ivy sign: a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for pediatric moyamoya. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2021 Dec 31; 1-9. View abstract
  2. Intracranial venous malformation masquerading as a meningioma in PI3KCA-related overgrowth spectrum disorder. Am J Med Genet A. 2021 Dec 02. View abstract
  3. Low profile sheaths in pediatric neurointervention: a multicenter experience. J Neurointerv Surg. 2021 Oct 08. View abstract
  4. DIAPH1 Variants in Non-East Asian Patients With Sporadic Moyamoya Disease. JAMA Neurol. 2021 08 01; 78(8):993-1003. View abstract
  5. Long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after pial pericranial dural revascularization: a hybrid surgical technique for treatment of anterior cerebral territory ischemia in pediatric moyamoya disease. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2021 Jul 02; 1-9. View abstract
  6. Endovascular Intervention for Refractory Pediatric Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis. Pediatr Neurol. 2021 08; 121:45-50. View abstract
  7. Pediatric diagnostic cerebral angiography: practice recommendations from the SNIS Pediatric Committee. J Neurointerv Surg. 2021 Aug; 13(8):762-766. View abstract
  8. Non-invasive Urinary Biomarkers in Moyamoya Disease. Front Neurol. 2021; 12:661952. View abstract
  9. Contemporary Management of Vascular Anomalies of the Head and Neck-Part 1: Vascular Malformations: A Review. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2021 02 01; 147(2):197-206. View abstract
  10. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2021 05; 38(4):391-396. View abstract
  11. Vein of Galen Malformation. Neoreviews. 2020 10; 21(10):e678-e686. View abstract
  12. Adverse effects of erenumab on cerebral proliferative angiopathy: A case report. Cephalalgia. 2021 01; 41(1):122-126. View abstract
  13. Intracranial venous malformations: Incidence and characterization in a large pediatric cohort. Interv Neuroradiol. 2021 Feb; 27(1):6-15. View abstract
  14. Congenital Disseminated Pyogenic Granuloma: Characterization of an Aggressive Multisystemic Disorder. J Pediatr. 2020 11; 226:157-166. View abstract
  15. COVID-19 and neurointerventional service worldwide: a survey of the European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS), the Sociedad Iberolatinoamericana de Neuroradiologia Diagnostica y Terapeutica (SILAN), the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN), and the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (WFITN). J Neurointerv Surg. 2020 Aug; 12(8):726-730. View abstract
  16. Dysregulation of the EphrinB2-EphB4 ratio in pediatric cerebral arteriovenous malformations is associated with endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro and functions as a novel noninvasive biomarker in patients. Exp Mol Med. 2020 04; 52(4):658-671. View abstract
  17. Microsurgical Ligation of Residual Fistulous Arteriovenous Shunt From a Radicular Artery to a Thoracic Arteriovenous Malformation: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Nov 01; 17(5):E206-E207. View abstract
  18. Clinical status and evolution in moyamoya: which angiographic findings correlate? Brain Commun. 2019; 1(1):fcz029. View abstract
  19. Survey of practice patterns and preparedness for endovascular therapy in acute pediatric stroke. Childs Nerv Syst. 2019 12; 35(12):2371-2378. View abstract
  20. Multidisciplinary management of spinal aneurysmal bone cysts: A single-center experience. Interv Neuroradiol. 2019 Oct; 25(5):564-569. View abstract
  21. Moyamoya syndrome and PHACE syndrome: clinical and radiographic characterization of the intracranial arteriopathy and response to surgical revascularization. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 02 01; 23(4):493-497. View abstract
  22. Reversible intracranial hypertension following treatment of an extracranial vascular malformation: case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 01 04; 23(3):369-373. View abstract
  23. Mutations in Chromatin Modifier and Ephrin Signaling Genes in Vein of Galen Malformation. Neuron. 2019 02 06; 101(3):429-443.e4. View abstract
  24. Acute fatal hemorrhage from previously undiagnosed cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children: a single-center experience. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2018 09; 22(3):244-250. View abstract
  25. Human genetics and molecular mechanisms of vein of Galen malformation. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2018 04; 21(4):367-374. View abstract
  26. Multimodal treatment approach in a patient with multiple intracranial myxomatous aneurysms. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2018 03; 21(3):315-321. View abstract
  27. Imaging features and prognostic factors in fetal and postnatal torcular dural sinus malformations, part I: review of experience at Boston Children's Hospital. J Neurointerv Surg. 2018 May; 10(5):467-470. View abstract
  28. Imaging features and prognostic factors in fetal and postnatal torcular dural sinus malformations, part II: synthesis of the literature and patient management. J Neurointerv Surg. 2018 May; 10(5):471-475. View abstract
  29. Segmental upper mid-basilar artery sacrifice in a child using a Micro Vascular Plug device for treatment of a basilar arteriovenous fistula compressing the brainstem. J Neurointerv Surg. 2017 10; 9(10):e37. View abstract
  30. Malignant glomus tumors of the head and neck in children and adults: Evaluation and management. Laryngoscope. 2017 12; 127(12):2873-2882. View abstract
  31. Segmental upper mid-basilar artery sacrifice in a child using a Micro Vascular Plug device for treatment of a basilar arteriovenous fistula compressing the brainstem. BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Mar 09; 2017. View abstract
  32. RF Heating of Gold Cup and Conductive Plastic Electrodes during Simultaneous EEG and MRI. Neurodiagn J. 2017; 57(1):69-83. View abstract
  33. PHACE Syndrome: Consensus-Derived Diagnosis and Care Recommendations. J Pediatr. 2016 11; 178:24-33.e2. View abstract
  34. Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric acute ischemic stroke: review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 2017 Aug; 9(8):732-737. View abstract
  35. Considerations in Applying a New Stent Retriever in Pediatric Endovascular Cerebral Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2016; 51(5):263-8. View abstract
  36. Direct neural current imaging in an intact cerebellum with magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage. 2016 05 15; 132:477-490. View abstract
  37. Interventional neuroradiology in children: diagnostics and therapeutics. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015 Dec; 27(6):700-5. View abstract
  38. The natural history of cerebral cavernous malformations in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Feb; 17(2):123-128. View abstract
  39. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Sep; 45 Suppl 3:S463-72. View abstract
  40. Optimizing cerebrovascular surgical and endovascular procedures in children via personalized 3D printing. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Nov; 16(5):584-589. View abstract
  41. Safety of neuroangiography and embolization in children: complication analysis of 697 consecutive procedures in 394 patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Oct; 16(4):432-8. View abstract
  42. Lower vertebral-epidural spinal arteriovenous fistulas: a unique subtype of vertebrovertebral arteriovenous fistula, treatable with coil and Penumbra Occlusion Device embolization. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Jun; 8(6):643-7. View abstract
  43. Intracranial aneurysms in the youngest patients: characteristics and treatment challenges. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2015; 50(1):18-25. View abstract
  44. Retinoblastoma. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015 Feb; 62(1):201-23. View abstract
  45. Microsurgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients: the Boston Children's Hospital experience. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Jan; 15(1):71-7. View abstract
  46. Magnetic resonance imaging of ionic currents in solution: the effect of magnetohydrodynamic flow. Magn Reson Med. 2015 Oct; 74(4):1145-55. View abstract
  47. Complications of intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Semin Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep-Nov; 29(5-6):429-33. View abstract
  48. Blue toe syndrome: a complication of intra-arterial technique, not intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 May; 132(5):654. View abstract
  49. Transarterial embolization of mandibular arteriovenous malformations using ONYX. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014 Aug; 72(8):1504-10. View abstract
  50. Neurointerventions in children: radiation exposure and its import. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Apr; 35(4):650-6. View abstract
  51. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for group C retinoblastoma with adjacent high-flow infantile hemangioma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013 Sep-Oct; 44(5):490-2. View abstract
  52. Re: The influence of angioarchitecture on management of pediatric intracranial arteriovenous malformations. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Jun; 8(e1):e11-2. View abstract
  53. Addressing challenges in 4 F and 5 F arterial access for neurointerventional procedures in infants and young children. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 May; 6(4):308-13. View abstract
  54. Incorporating reversible and irreversible transverse relaxation effects into Steady State Free Precession (SSFP) signal intensity expressions for fMRI considerations. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Apr; 31(3):346-52. View abstract
  55. Imaging characteristics of cerebrovascular arteriopathy and stroke in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013 May; 34(5):1091-7. View abstract
  56. Endovascular therapy in children with acute ischemic stroke: review and recommendations. Neurology. 2012 Sep 25; 79(13 Suppl 1):S158-64. View abstract
  57. Cerebrofacial venous anomalies, sinus pericranii, ocular abnormalities and developmental delay. Interv Neuroradiol. 2012 Jun; 18(2):153-7. View abstract
  58. Angioarchitectural features associated with hemorrhagic presentation in pediatric cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 May; 5(3):191-5. View abstract
  59. Pial arteriovenous fistulae in pediatric patients: associated syndromes and treatment outcome. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Jan 01; 5(1):10-4. View abstract
  60. Dural arteriovenous fistulae in pediatric patients: associated conditions and treatment outcomes. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Jan 01; 5(1):6-9. View abstract
  61. Long-term outcome of radiofrequency ablation for intraoral microcystic lymphatic malformation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 Dec; 137(12):1247-50. View abstract
  62. Increased vertebral artery tortuosity index is associated with adverse outcomes in children and young adults with connective tissue disorders. Circulation. 2011 Jul 26; 124(4):388-96. View abstract
  63. Stretched and sheared microcatheter retained after onyx embolization of infantile myofibromatosis. Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Jun; 17(2):261-6. View abstract
  64. An empirical investigation of motion effects in eMRI of interictal epileptiform spikes. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Dec; 29(10):1401-9. View abstract
  65. Trigeminocardiac reflex in a child during pre-Onyx DMSO injection for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma embolization. A case report. Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Mar; 17(1):13-6. View abstract
  66. Safety and clinical efficacy of Onyx for embolization of extracranial head and neck vascular anomalies. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Jun-Jul; 32(6):1082-6. View abstract
  67. Complex spinal-paraspinal fast-flow lesions in CLOVES syndrome: analysis of clinical and imaging findings in 6 patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Nov-Dec; 32(10):1812-7. View abstract
  68. Management of arteriovenous malformations. Clin Plast Surg. 2011 Jan; 38(1):95-106. View abstract
  69. Fast human brain magnetic resonance responses associated with epileptiform spikes. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Dec; 64(6):1728-38. View abstract
  70. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and spinal arteriovenous malformations: an erroneous association. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct; 31(9):1608-12. View abstract
  71. A novel association between RASA1 mutations and spinal arteriovenous anomalies. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Apr; 31(4):775-9. View abstract
  72. The use of Onyx for embolization of central nervous system arteriovenous lesions in pediatric patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Jan; 31(1):112-20. View abstract
  73. Neurointerventional management of high-flow vascular malformations of the head and neck. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2009 May; 19(2):219-40, Table of Contents. View abstract
  74. Neurointerventional management of low-flow vascular malformations of the head and neck. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2009 May; 19(2):199-218. View abstract
  75. Infantile hemangiomas involving the neuraxis: clinical and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009 May; 30(5):1005-13. View abstract
  76. Arteriovenous shunting as a new feature of PHACES. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Jan; 3(1):53-6. View abstract
  77. Traumatic dissecting aneurysm at the vertebrobasilar junction in a 3-month-old infant: evaluation and treatment strategies. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008 May; 1(5):415-9. View abstract
  78. Re: Spinal epidural hemangiomas: various types of MR imaging features with histopathologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008 May; 29(5):e31; author reply e32. View abstract
  79. Comparing real-world advantages for the clinical neuroradiologist between a high field (3 T), a phased array (1.5 T) vs. a single-channel 1.5-T MR system. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2006 Jul; 24(1):16-24. View abstract
  80. Carotid artery stent implantation: evaluation with multi-detector row CT angiography and virtual angioscopy--initial experience. Radiology. 2006 Jan; 238(1):309-20. View abstract
  81. Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient with neuropsychological testing in temporal lobe epilepsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Aug; 26(7):1832-9. View abstract
  82. Isolated foot weakness caused by a parasagittal metastatic parotid adenocarcinoma. Neurol India. 2004 Jun; 52(2):286-7. View abstract
  83. Surgical treatment of multifocal epilepsy involving eloquent cortex. Epilepsia. 2003 May; 44(5):718-23. View abstract
  84. Psychogenic, nonepileptic seizures associated with video-EEG-verified sleep. Epilepsia. 2003 Jan; 44(1):64-8. View abstract
  85. Multiple subpial transection for intractable partial epilepsy: an international meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2002 Feb; 43(2):141-5. View abstract